Also called basic industry. It transforms raw materials into semi-finished products that are then used in other industries, and includes mining and energy production.
- Coal, iron, copper, bauxite, petroleum or natural gas is some of the chief raw materials used in this industry.
- Metallurgical or siderurgical industry and heavy chemical industry are examples of this.
- Iron and steel making, the prototype of heavy industry, is the transformation of iron ore into pig iron or steel.
- Chemical industries transform mining products into other goods, for use in other industries.
- Usually located near mines, and energy sources, or near ports of entry for raw materials to reduce the transportation price of raw materials.
- Very polluting, usually are located outside cities or in countries with permissive environmental laws.
- Requires high investment in raw materials and energy sources.